What is Money?—Part Two: Value and Social Relations

money people circleIn the second part of his series looking at the role of money within capitalist society, Adam Booth explores the questions of value, alienation, and profit in order to develop a more in-depth understanding about the nature of money.

What is Money?—Part One: the Origins of Money


In the first of a five-part series analyzing the role of money within capitalist society, Adam Booth looks at the origins and evolution of money. By applying the Marxist method to this question, we can strip away the mysticism of this seemingly omnipotent power—“the root of all kinds of evil”—and understand the solution to removing its grip over us.


42 Years Since the Portuguese Revolution

Today marks the 42nd anniversary of the Portuguese Revolution. On this occasion we recommend the following analysis, written by Alan Woods in 1974.

On Kautsky’s “Foundations of Christianity”

Religion is not the motor force of history, but great social changes are expressed in changes in religion. In his book Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy Engels explained that great historical turning points have been accompanied by religious changes in the case of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. The mass movements that were aroused by these beliefs in the early period of both Islam and Christianity shook the world.

Early Christianity arose at a time of upheaval and change associated with the crisis of slave society. The rise of Christianity is one of the most extraordinary phenomena in history. Despite the most ferocious persecution, the Christians won mass support until the new religion was eventually recognized by the Emperor Constantine. From being a revolutionary movement of the poor and oppressed, the Church was absorbed into the state to become a formidable weapon in the hands of the rich and powerful.

WWI—Part Eleven: Wilfred Owen and the Muse of War

Wilfred Owen plate from Poems (1920).jpg“The people of England needn’t hope. They must agitate.” (Wilfred Owen, letter to his mother)

It has been said that when the cannons are heard, the muses are silent. In a general sense that is true. The thunder of war drowns out the voice of the poet and the artist. The grim poetry of artillery shells, hand grenades and machine guns is far stronger than the weak voice of human beings protesting against the monstrous cannibalism that periodically disrupts the old equilibrium and threatens to destroy the conditions of civilized existence. However, to every rule there is an exception.